RFIC Design


Baseband Tones Intermodulation

Intermodulation of Two Baseband Tones This is part 3 in series of two tone intermodulation distortion. When we usually talk about two tone intermods, we mean it for two RF tones for which 2nd harmonics or even order terms fall far away, and we say we only care about IM3 and IM5 because they are close […]

Intermodulation Distortion Analysis

intermodulation distortion analysis of two tones up to 5th order

Advance Intermodulation Distortion Analysis This is part 2 in series of two tone intermodulation distortion analysis. Whether you are optimizing linearity or debugging it, you want to understand what are different distortion products, how do they get generated and what are they made of. For example, IM3 is made of odd order non-linearities: 3rd order has […]

Counter Intermodulation Distortion aka 4FMODs


4FMODs and Counter IM3 New to transmitter design? Trying to understand what metrics are used by industry for transmitter design? You might have heard of primary 4FMOD (also called CIM3) and secondary 4FMOD (also called CIM5). Unlike traditional IM3 which is generated by intermodulation of two tones, CIM3 and CIM5 are primarily generated by distortion […]

Intermodulation of Two Tones

intermodulation products of two tone

Intermodulation of Two Tones Admit it. You are lazy and don’t make notes. You do this math every time you need to remember what distortion products are generated by intermodulation of two tones and what is their relative level. No more. We are doing the math now, so you don’t have to. Intermodulation Math Assume […]